Choose the alternative that best suits the context

1. I’ll … look after my little nephew at the weekend. My sister asked me to.

a) have to b) am to

2. I’m having an interview tomorrow I … be at the office at 4 p.m.

a) have to b) am to

3. We agreed that the next discussion … be held in October.

a) had to b) was to

4. It’s raining cats and dogs. You ,,, wait until it stops.

a) will have to b) are to

5. If we … remain friends, let us not lie to each other.

a) have to b) are to

6. What …I … do now? I’m really at a loss

a) have … to b) am … to

7. My car broke down. I’ll … go to work by bus until it is mended.

a) have to b) am to

8. What …become of him? He is such a naughty child!

a) has to b) is to


1. Fill in the blanks with “must”, “have to” or “be to” to suit the motives expressed in the following sentences:

1. “It is eight o’clock. The children … go to bed”, Mr. Hudson said to the nurse.

2. She … go to bed at eight o’clock to be up in time for the first train.

3. At this boarding school the children … go to bed at eight o’clock.

4. “I’ve told my husband he … (not) smoke in the drawing-room”. “And I … (not) tell my husband such things; he‘s a born gentleman”.

5. He … stay the night with us. I won’t let him drive to the country in this rain.

6. He … stay the night with us because he has missed the last bus.

7. He … stay the night with us and tomorrow he sets off on his tour to Europe.

8. We … begin a early as possible or we shan’t finish it today.

9. I …start on my new job on Monday.

10. You … take the dog away. I won’t have it here any longer.

11. They … take the dog along with them because there is no one who could look after there is no one who could look after it.

12. She … learn to do things for herself. I refuse to help her in the future.

13. What a pity you … go. I know it’s time for you to cutch your train.

14. I … be off. I want to go to bed.

15. My bike is under repair and I … walk here this morning.

16. My bike was under repair and I … collect it that afternoon.

17. My bike is under repair and I … have collected it yesterday.

18. He told me that I … (not) repeat what I had heard.

19. He told me that I … (not) use words which I don’t know.

20. He told me that I … learn by heart some twenty lines every day to know English well.


Meaning Forms of the modal verb Ways of rendering in Russian Forms of the Infinitive Kinds of sentences Some other ways of expressing the same meaning Sentence patterns
1Necessity. need необходимо нужно Indefinite Infinitive   interrogative affirmative (not typical) necessary Need I answer this question?
2. Absence of necessity. needn’t 1. нет необходимости, не нужно 2. зря, незачем было, не надо было 1. Indefinite Infinitive 2. Perfect Infinitive (expresses an action which was performed though it was not necessary) negative There is no need to do it. It’s not necessary to do it. There is no necessity to do it. The teacher needn’t explain such simple things. The pupils know them. We needn’t have brought our grammar books today. We are having a class in phonetics instead.

Notes:1. When rendering the Russian «не нужно было» use “needn’t have done”to show that the action wasperformed though it was not necessary. Use “didn’t have to do” to indicate that the action was not performed as there was no obligation. e.g. He needn’t have bought the book (but he did). It is available at the library. It is available at the library. I didn’t have to buythe textbook (and I didn’t) as I had it at home.

2. In negative sentences the negation is not always associated with the verb “need”, it may be found else where in the sentence. e.g. I don’t think we need continueour talk.Theyneedhardlydiscussthe problem again.

1. Explain the meaning of “need” in the following sentences and translate them into Russian:

1. “Why don’t you go and look at the snake?” her mother suggested, “You needn’t go up close.”

2. It’s not easy to hold responsibility. I needn’t tell you that.

3. Angela opened the door and walked in. Her daughter was still up. “You needn’t have stayed up, waiting for me,” said Angela.

4. If you don’t like cocktail, you needn’t drink it.

5. “Do your remember what you did when you were twenty-five?” “You need not have reminded me of it.”

6. Need we insist upon the date?

7. You needn’t worry.

8. Need you bring your girl-friend with you?

9. She said that if he didn’t like to come to her parties he needn’t come at all.

10. I was rather afraid that he might act as through we were intimate friends, which would have been embarrassing. But I need not have worried.

11. Does he need to study more at home?

2. Translate the following sentences into English using need:

1. То, что она сделала, так глупо, что нам незачем обсуждать это.

2. Озеро было так близко, что даже Алан, который не любил ходить пешком, согласился, что не нужно брать машину.

3. Нам не стоит варить всю картошку.

4. Нам нужно переодеться к обеду?

5. У нас ещё масса времени. Мы зря спешили.

6. А нам обязательно туда идти?

7. Тебе незачем тратить на них все деньги.

8. «Я сказал твоему дяде, что поговорю с тобой». – «Ты напрасно беспокоился. Я пообещал своим родителям побыть здесь еще немного».

9. Он положил конверт на стол. Деньги все там, - сказал он. – Можешь не пересчитывать их».

10. Ты знаешь детей. Они все ломают. Мне нет нужды говорить тебе об этом.

11. Он знал, что ему не надо никому ничего объяснять.

12. Я думаю, что нам незачем уделять ей столько внимания.

13. Тебе незачем бояться меня.

14. Нам не обязательно слушать всех ораторов.

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