VI. Questions and assignments

1. What is motivation? Give a short definition.

2. What is practical management based on?

3. State the main difference between Taylor's and McGregor's theories (Theory X and Theory Y).

4. Which theory of these two takes into account social process­es in the workplace?

5. State two main factors that help increase productivity at the Japanese firms.

6. Why do people at the Japanese firms work towards organiza-

7. Find in the text the words and word combinations which de­fine safety needs, social needs, and esteem needs.

8. How may the above mentioned (вышеупомянутые) needs be satisfied? Find the answers in the text and read them out (зачитайте вслух).

9. Which level in Maslow's pyramid is the most important one in your opinion (по вашему мнению)? Why?

VII. Speak on the following.

1. F. Taylor's and D.McGregor's motivation theories and the main difference between them.

2. A. Maslow's hierarchy of needs.

VIII. Read and translate this newspaper article.


Stephen Hayward

There is nothing worse than wanting to turn back time and thinking: "If only I knew then what I know now". But turn back time you cannot do, so how do you know you make the right ca­reer decision?

Once you have got down the recruitment track, and an offer is forthcoming, there are three key issues you need to sort out in your mind: how to weigh up the offer; how to handle your resigna­tion; and how to react to any possible counter-offer.

"First, you must remember that a job offer is a lot more than just remuneration," says Nigel Bates, director of Selection De­partment.

"You've got to trust your instincts and say to yourself: 'Can I spend 45 weeks of the year with these people?'. You should ask yourself, too, if this is an undertaking that genuinely excites you."

"You must also look to the longer term and see what routes forward there are from this job."

Always think of each career move as a stepping stone - as you move forward, every stone brings more choices, each leading to adifferent destination.

"Too often I still hear about problems that people discover shortly after joining, so you need to do your research properly", says Bates.

"Nothing is too much."

Preparing for key business meetings is, of course, critical, and you need to plan the resignation.meeting with particular care.

"Take no risks, so make sure you've got a rock-solid, binding-offer letter in your hand before resigning," says Bates, "and make sure that you have truly decided to go, and have rehearsed your responses to the 'why?' questions that you will inevitably be asked."

Having done all that, there still might be one hurdle to cross and that is handling the buy-back offer. Bates believes that very few buy-backs actually work.

"My experience is that many people who are bought back ac­tually only stay for a few more months."

Follow this advice and you will not find yourself in the wrong job with the wrong employer.

IX. Questions and assignments.

1. List three key issues you need sort out after you have got a recruitment offer.

2. Is a job offer a lot more than just remuneration?

3. What should you ask yourself after you get a job offer?

4. What should you have before a resignation meeting?

5. Should you rehearse your responses to the "why?" questions before a resignation meeting?

6. Do buy-backs usually work for a long time?

7. What is the general idea of this article?

Unit 14

Business Ethics

Ethics is the system of moral principles, rules of conduct, and morality of choices that individuals make.

Business ethics is the application of moral standards to busi­ness situations. Business ethics has become a matter of public concern.

All business people face ethical issues daily, and they stem from a variety of sources. Although some types of issues arise infrequently, others occur regularly. Let's take a closer look at several ethical issues.

1. Fairness and Honesty. Fairness and honesty in business are two important ethical concerns. Besides obeying all laws and regulations, business people should refrain from deceiving, mis­representing, or intimidating others.

2. Organizational Relationships. A business person may be tempted to place his or her personal welfare above the wel­fare of the organization. Relationships with customers and co-workers often create ethical problems — since confidential infor­mation should be secret and all obligations should be honoured. Unethical behaviour in these areas includes not meeting one's obligations in a mutual agreement, and pressuring others to be­have unethically.

3. Conflict of Interest. Conflict of interest results when a business person takes advantage of a situation for his or her own personal interest rather than for the employer's or organi­zation's interest. Such conflict may occur when payments and gifts make their way into business deals. A wise rule to remem­ber is that anything given to a person that might unfairly influence that person's business decision is a bribe, and all bribes are unethical.

4. Communications. Business communications, especially advertising, can present ethical questions. False and misleading advertising is illegal and unethical, and it can infuriate customers. Sponsors of advertisements aimed at children must be especially careful to avoid misleading messages. Advertisers of health-relat­ed products must also take precautions against deception.

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