Read, translate and retell the text
Text “Olympic heroes”
Most people have no problem remembering the last Olympic Games and many of us look forward to the next Games with great excitement. But it’s easy to forget the heroes of the last part of the 20th century. Who were those sports men and women who were the greatest influences on the athletes of today?
In the athletics stadium, perhaps, the greatest star of all was Carl Lewis. He became an immediate favorite with the fans after winning four gold medals at Los Angeles in 1984, the year when the Russians did not send a team. This was partly because the Americans had not sent a team to Moscow four years earlier. Lewis’s Olympic career lasted for another 12 years until 1996 when he won his ninth gold medal in Atlanta. He could have won the tenth in the 4 x 100 m relay but he wasn’t picked for the team. It is this last medal that Lewis is most proud of.
Among the women who can forget the glamorous Florence Griffith-Joyner, with her long, painted finger-nails at the 1998 Games in Seoul, winning the 100 and 200 m? Her sister, Jackie, followed in her footsteps by winning the long jump. But perhaps the most significant event that year was when Carl Lewis’s great rival, Ben Johnson, lost his gold medal for the 100 m after failing a drugs test.
The Barcelona Olympic Games of 1992 were perhaps the friendliest Games in recent times and this time it was a gymnast, Vitaly Scherba from Belarus, who was in the limelight after winning four golds. At the next games, the medals for gymnasts were shared, with no single competitor dominating. Europeans will remember Melissanidis taking the gold for Greece in the floor exercises and the Ukrainian, Lilia Podkopayeva, winning the women’s event.
In Moscow, many western European nations joined the Americans in refusing to take part, but it was a good year for Britain and there were medals for middle distance runners, Coe and Ovett. In the pool, Cristina Egerszegi from Hungary has won five golds, her first in Seoul for the 200 m backstroke and her last for the same event in Barcelona. All of these medals were for individual events. But Kristin Otto from East Germany won six gold medals in the pool at Seoul, although two of these were for relay races.
With such a rich history, we can be confident that the Games will continue to provide us with more sporting heroes who will be remembered for years to come.
а) Answer the following questions:
1. What sport do you play?
2. Have you ever won a cup or a trophy?
3. Have you ever been injured doing sport?
4. Do you prefer doing sport or being a spectator?
5. Do you go to watch a local sports team?
6. How many hours do you spend a week watching sport on TV?
7. What sports did you have to do at school?
8. Do you think you’re fit? Would you like to get fitter?
9. Do your family and friends like sport?
10. What sport do you hate watching most on TV? Why?
11. Have you ever been to a big sporting occasion?
12. Are there any great sportsmen in your country (town)?
13. Which Olympic Games you think were the most interesting in the history of sports?
2) Read and learn by heart the following glossary:
competition / contest
gym / gymnasium
Olympics / Olympic Games
playground / sports ground
semifinal / semi-final
sport / sports
trainer / coach
WEEK 3. “Crime and punishment”
1.Text “The best and worst criminals in the world”
2.Grammar: Equivalents of Modal verbs
Read this text about incompetent criminals. Choose the most suitable heading from the list A-F for each part 1-5 of the text. There is one extra heading which you do not need to use
Text “The best and worst criminals in the world”
A – Eating the evidence
B – Choosing the wrong person
C – Look before you steel
D – A loss of memory
E – Escape to jail
F – A double crime
1) Stealing money from old people who are unable to defend themselves has always been a particularly unpleasant crime. But one case that got a lot of publicity in the press recently was about an amateur thief called Peter Raymond. He was going for a walk when he saw an old lady getting out of her car. He walked over to her, pulled out a knife and demanded money. The woman, Betty Hooper, 74 years old, got out her gun, locked the thief in the back of her car and drove to the police station.
2) A group of thieves in Colombia were involved in a very curious robbery two years ago. In the middle of the night, they broke into a shoe shop and stole 756 shoes. So far, so good, but if the thieves had looked more closely at the shoes, they would have realized that they were all for the right foot. The left shoes had been locked in another room as a security measure.
3) A burglar in Antwerp, Belgium, had a great shock during a robbery that went wrong. He was searching valuables in the house when he was apparently disturbed by a noise. He run out into the garden at the back of the house, but instead of escaping through the next door of neighbor’s garden, he managed to climb over the three meter high back wall. He jumped down the other side and found himself in the local prison.
4) Mr. Boyd, from England was banned from driving in a very strange case. The police noticed that the tax disc on his car was out of date. When they stopped him, Mr. Boyd put the disc into his mouth and ate it. “There is no evidence, so you can’t arrest me”, he told the police. Unfortunately, the judge disagreed and Mr. Boyd was found guilty.
5) One day after a man’s car was stolen, he found the car in the street outside his house, looking newly cleaned and polished. When he opened the car he found a note from someone apologizing for having taken the car. The note explained that the car thief’s mother had been ill and that he had to take her to the hospital. The envelope also contained two tickets for the opera. On returning from the opera
2) Grammar: EQUIVALENTS OF MODAL VERBS
Should and ought
Should was originally the past tense of shall, but in the course of its development it has acquired new shades of meaning. The modal verbs should and ought are treated together here as there is hardly any difference between them. Very often they are interchangeable.
I ought to have married; yes, I should have married long ago.
There is, however, a difference in construction. Whereas should is followed by the infinitive without the particle to, ought is always followed by the to-infinitive.
When reference is made to the present or future, the Indefinite Infinitive is used.
In wartime a man should not part with his rifle. (Heym) It’s murder, and we ought to stop it.
When reference is made to the past the Perfect Infinitive shows that the obligation was not carried out.
“Youshould have been here last night when they brought back the DP’s to the mines,” said Yates.
She ought to have known that the whole subject was too dangerous to discuss at night.
I know that I was weak in yielding to my mother’s will. I should not have done so. She had no nerves; he oughtnever to have married a woman eighteen years younger than himself.
Should and ought are sometimes used with the Continuous Infinitive and the Perfect Continuous Infinitive.
You should be learning your lessons, Jack, and not talking with Mary.
You ought to be helping your mother with your salary and not squandering your money.
He should have been trying to break through the isolation the hospital had set around Thorpe, he should have been doing many things other than walking along the Seine quay. (Heym)
Both should and ought express obligation, something which is advisable, proper or naturally expected.
1. Obligation, very often a moral obligation or. duty. In this meaning ought is more often used than should.
Martin’s hand instinctively closed on the piece of gold. In the same instant he knew he oughtn’tto accept. (London).Рука Мартина инстинктивно сжала золотую монету. В то же мгновение он понял, что не должен принимать ее.
I promised her if ever the time came when she needed me, to be her friend. Promises of that sort shouldnever be broken. (Meade) Я обещал ей, если когда-либо наступит момент, когда я буду нужен, быть ее другом. Такие обещания никогда не должны нарушаться.
In this meaning should is more common than ought, as it always shows some personal interest whereas ought is more matter-of-fact.
You shouldbe more careful. (London) Вам следует быть осторожнее.
You oughtto have Warmson to sleep in the house. Нужно было бы, чтобы Уормсон спал у вас в доме.
Something which can be naturally expected. It’s the last of the Madeira I had from Mr. Jolyon... it oughtto be in prime condition still. Это последняя бутылка мадеры, которую я получил от мистера Джолиона... она должна быть еще в отличном состоянии.
If it’s a story by Wodehouse it shouldbe amusing. Если это рассказ Вудхауса, он должен быть забавным.
То be + Infinitive
То be + Infinitive is a modal expression. Some of its meanings are close to those of modal verbs and expressions denoting obligation (must, shall, should, ought, to have + Infinitive).
This modal expression can be used in two tenses — the Present Indefinite and the Past Indefinite Dear Jim, I am to be shot at sunrise tomorrow. They were to go to Spain for the honeymoon.
To be + Infinitive expresses a weakened order, an arrangement, possibility, something thought of as unavoidable. The ways of rendering this expression in Russian differ in accordance with its meaning.
1. An order which is generally the result of an arrangement made by one person for another, an arrangement which is not to be discussed.
In this case only the Indefinite Infinitive is used.
You are to go straight to your room. You are to say nothing of this to anyone.
Ты должна идти прямо в свою комнату. Ты никому не должна ничего говорить об этом.
Schlaghammer frowned. It was not up to him to judge Pettinger... but it was in his province to interpret orders. He was to blast the entrances of the mine.
Шлагхаммер нахмурился. Не ему судить Петтингера, но толковать приказы — это его право. Он должен взорвать все входы в шахту.
2. An arrangement, or agreement, part of a plan.
In this meaning both the Indefinite and the Perfect Infinitive can be used; the Perfect Infinitive shows that the action was not carried out.
I’m sorry, Major, we had an agreement — I was to do the questioning here. Простите, майор, мы условились, что допрос буду вести я.
We were to meet at the entrance of the theatre at a quarter to eight. (mutual arrangement)
Мы должны были встретиться у входа в театр без четверти восемь.
“Have you seen him?” Martini asked. “No, he was to have met me here the next morning.”
«Вы его видели?» — спросил Мартини. «Нет, он должен был встретить меня здесь на следующее утро».
In this meaning the passive form of the Infinitive is used unless it is a question beginning with the interrogative adverb how. Here the meaning of the modal expression comes very close to that of the verb can.
For a long time neither was to be seen about their old haunts. (Dreiser)
В течение долгого времени их не видели в местах, где они обычно бывали.
How arethey to know that you are well connected if you do not show it by your costume?
Как могут они знать, что у вас большие связи, если вы не показываете этого своей манерой одеваться?
And he knew that higher intellects than those of the Morse circle were to be found in the world.
И он знал, что можно найти людей с более высоким интеллектом, чем у тех, которые принадлежали к кругу Морзов.
4. Something thought of as unavoidable.
Sally wished Morris could be on the same terms of easy friendliness with her as he was with everybody else. But evidently, it was not to be. Салли хотела, чтобы Моррис поддерживал с ней такие же простые дружеские отношения, как и со всеми остальными. Но, очевидно, этому не суждено было быть.
I went about brooding over my lot, wondering almost hourly what was to become of me. Я все время размышлял о своей судьбе, беспрестанно задавая себе вопрос, что со мной станет.
To have + Infinitive
The modal expression to have + Infinitive is used in three tense forms: the Present Indefinite, the Past Indefinite and the Future Indefinite.
I have to get up at six every day. When water was rushing through the tents and everybody had to sleep in wet blankets, it was treated as a joke. (Prichard)
I shall have to take the pupils into the hills, as usual, and see them settled there. The negative and interrogative forms of this modal expression are formed with the help of the auxiliary do.
Didyou have to walk all the way home? I did not have to walk, I took a tram.
Only the Indefinite Infinitive Active and Passive can be used in this modal expression.
I had imagined we should have to hold a large house-party for the occasion.
I wouldn’t look through the letters — disappointment had to be postponed, hope kept alive as long as possible. (Greene)
To have + Infinitive expresses an obligation or necessity arising out of circumstances. Its meaning is close to that of to be obliged. It is often rendered in Russian by приходится, должен, вынужден.
Bing knew that if Willoughby demanded it, he had to give the report. (Heym)
Бинг знал, что, если Уиллоуби этого требует, он должен дать отчет.
And if my father was fighting drunk sometimes he wouldn’t let us into the house so that we had to stay out all night. И если мой отец в пьяном виде дрался, он иногда не впускал нас в дом, так что нам приходилось ночевать на улице.
Though both the modal expressions to be + Infinitive and to have + Infinitive express a shade of obligation or necessity, there is, a great difference in their meaning.
C o m p a r e:
As I wasto bethere at 5 sharp (part of an arrangement), I had to take a taxi.
Так как я должен был быть там ровно в пять, мне пришлось взять такси.
In colloquial English and especially in American English have, got + Infinitive is often used in the same meaning as have + Infinitive.
This modal expression is used in the Present Indefinite tense only.
Okay, we’ll beat ‘em to it. Dick, we’ve got to keep awake, we’ve got to watch things and be ready. The negative and interrogative forms are formed without any auxiliary.
Haveyou got to do all this work yourself? No, I have not got to work so much.
There is a tendency in Modern English to use got + Infinitive in the same meaning.
You can smile away till you split your cheeks, but you still got to do a day’s work to earn a day’s wages, and apples don’t grow on monkey-trees.
Need expresses necessity. It is mostly used in negative and interrogative sentences.
You needn’tbe in such a fright. Takemyarm. He надо так бояться. Возьмите меня, под руку.
N o t e. — When need is used in the meaning of ‘to be in want of’ it is treated as a normal verb.
He needs a new pair of shoes.
Need has only one tense form — the Present. In the same way as dare, need is used as a normal and as an anomalous verb; the latter is much more common in colloquial English.
One need to be careful. He did not need to be told twice. Why needhe bother us? I am here. You needn’t be afraid.I need hardly say I would do anything in the world to ensure his happiness.
Need is used both with the Indefinite and with the Perfect Infinitive.
I suppose I needn’t have made that observation. Пожалуй, не к чему мне было делать такое замечание.