Subjunctive mood



Exercise 1. Translate the following sentences into Russian.

1. If the weather is fine tomorrow, we’ll go to the country. 2. I’ll give you this videocassette if you return it next week. 3. They won’t return in time unless they hurry. 4. If you interrupt again you will have to go outside. 5. If I promise to give you the letter, will you come back? 6. She won’t get better unless she calls a doctor. – She won’t get better if she calls him. She’ll get worse. 7. If you see Dave tomorrow, tell him I’d like to have a word with him. 8. You won’t be forgiven unless you return the money you have taken. 9. The whole matter will be forgotten if I manage to produce the letter. 10. What will he do if he doesn’t get their answer? 11. If they don’t come to our party, we’ll be upset. 12. If they want to come, there’s nothing we can do.

Exercise 2. Paraphrase the sentences according to the pattern.

A Pattern: Say that again and we’ll quarrel. – If you say that again we’ll quarrel.

1. Go to the doctor and he will help you. 2. Take a taxi and we’ll be there in time. 3. Switch on the radio and you’ll hear the news. 3. Wait a minute and I will explain it to you. 5. Listen to me and you’ll understand everything. 6. Turn over the page and you’ll see that picture. 7. Come late once more and you'll be fired. 8. Follow the instructions and you won’t get lost. 9. Buy all those things and you'll have no money left. 10. Go along this street and you'll see the bank on your left.

B Pattern:Wind up your watch or else it will stop. – If you don't wind up your watch it will stop.

1. Put that book back at once, or I’ll get angry. 2. Put on something warm, or else you’ll catch a cold. 3. Tell me the truth or else I’ll learn everything on my own. 4. Get up at once, or else you'll be late. 5. Mind your spelling, or else you'll never get good marks. 6. Say you are sorry, or else your Mother will never forgive you. 7. Answer this letter, or he will take offence. 8. Take this job, or else you'll have no more chances. 9. Ring him up, or else you won’t get the instructions. 10. Read the map carefully, or else you’ll get lost.

Exercise 3. Match these parts to make conditional sentences.

1. They’ll understand it right… 2. Ben will post the letter… 3. Maria will get some money… 4. I’ll buy a new car… 5. You can’t get in… 6. She’ll lose weigh… 7. I’ll have a word with Jane… 8. You’ll need a visa… 9. I won’t object… 10. They won’t go to school… 11. Tony will answer the phone… 12. He won’t take the money… a) …if you don't have at all ticket. b) …if I get this job. c) …if it is too cold. d) …if you explain it to them. e) …if she goes to the bank. f) …if you are going to America. g) …if you press it on him. h) …if she is at home. i) …if you ask him. j) …if she goes on with her work. k) …if he is at home. l) …if you try and help me.

Exercise 4. Fill in the blanks with IF or UNLESS.

1. You’ll never pass your driving test … you don't work harder. 2. You won’t pass your test … you drive more carefully. 3. We won’t go to the beach tomorrow … it is raining. 4. We’ll go to the beach tomorrow …it is raining. 5. We will go to the beach tomorrow … it isn’t raining. 6. …we hurry, we’ll miss the train. 7. …we don’t hurry, we’ll miss the train. 8. We’ll catch the train … we hurry. 9. …this team doesn’t start working harder, they’ll lose again. 10. …they start working harder, they’ll lose again. 11. You can’t see the game … you have a ticket. 12. You can see the game…you have a ticket. 13. You can’t borrow this book … you return the one you took last month. 14. She will come to see us next month … she has problems with her work.

Exercise 5. Complete the following sentences.

A 1. We won’t come in time if … 2. They'll pass their tests if … 3. Your eyes will get tired if … 4. The tourists will lose their way if … 5. You’ll catch a cold if … 1. B 2. 1. He’ll forget to lock the door unless … 3. 2. Helen will gain weight unless … 4. 3. We’ll have a party tomorrow unless … 5. 4. She won’t accept our invitation unless … 5. Mother won’t notice anything unless …



1. If you don't get a job …

2. If you read too much …

3. If you aren't careful in the street …

4. If he forgets to warn them about the changes …

5. If she phones too late …

Exercise 6. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct forms.

1. He (understand) you if you (speak) slowly. 2. He (find) a good job if he (try) hard enough. 3. You (be attacked) by the dog if you (move). 4. I (go) away unless you (want) me to stay. 5. If I (make) coffee, you (cut) the cake? 6. Please don’t sign any contracts unless the (be checked) by me. 7. If he (hurry), he (get) a good seat. 8. He (get) a bad seat unless he (hurry). 9. Someone may get into the house if he (forget) to lock the door. 10. He (not pass) his exam unless he (read) more English books in the original. 11. He must be more careful, unless he (want) troubles. 12. What you (do) if you (fail) your test? 13. Where you (go) if you (be) free on Sunday? 14. They (pay) him if he (finish) his work. 15. They (not pay) him unless he (finish) his work. 16. If the children (come) home late, they (be punished).

Exercise 7. Translate into English.

1. Он не выполнит это задание, если оно будет слишком сложным. 2. Если вы поможете мне, я переведу этот текст быстрее. 3. Завтра мы поедем за город, если только не будет дождя. 4. Если вы не будете больше заниматься, то вам будет трудно сдавать экзамены. 5. Что вы сделаете, если выиграете главный приз. 6. Куда вы поедете летом? – В Италию если будет достаточно денег. 7. Если вы возьмете такси, то успеете его встретить. 8. Если нас не будет дома, когда вы позвоните, то перезвоните попозже. 9. Не помогайте ему, если он сам вас об этом не попросит. 10. Если вам не хватает денег, то придется подождать с покупкой телевизора. 11. Если он не сможет ничего объяснить, его ждут большие неприятности. 12. Брайан купит новую машину если не потратит деньги на что-нибудь другое.


Exercise 1. Translate the following sentences from English into Russian.

1. If I knew his address, I’d write him. 2. If he had more spare time, he would help us. 3. If we received this letter tomorrow, we would answer immediately. 4. If he were here, he would answer your question. 5. If she were here, they would ask her a few questions. 6. If I were you, I wouldn’t dare to argue. 7. He would certainly agree if he were in your place. 8. Phil would travel if he had more money. 9. If they didn’t want to go they wouldn’t. 10. I’d go out if it weren’t snowing. 11. If she didn’t come to their party next week, they would be very angry. 12. What would you do if your house were broken into? 13. Ellen wouldn’t give me any money if I asked her. 14. Would you give me money if I asked you? 15. What would you do if you found somebody’s purse? 16. Unless they offered more, I wouldn't accept the job.

Exercise 2. Paraphrase the sentences according to the pattern.

A Pattern: The weather isn’t warm today. We won’t go hiking. –

If the weather were fine today, we would go hiking.

1. He doesn’t know us well. He won’t invite us. 2. We don’t like chicken. We won’t buy it. 3. I'm not cold. I won’t put on a sweater. 3. Dave doesn’t smoke. He won’t take cigarettes. 4. She doesn't like ballet. She won’t go to the ballet house with us. 6. He doesn’t know my cousin, he won’t meet her at the station. 7. She doesn't like coffee. She never buys it. 8. He doesn't read English books in the original. He won’t improve his English. 9. He doesn’t try to save money. He won’t travel in summer. 10. I have no appetite. I won’t take more meat. 11. They are not here. I won’t talk to them. 12. It isn't windy today. We won’t fly a kite. 13. Mary doesn't earn much. She doesn't buy anything new. 14. Jane hasn’t got a VCR. She doesn’t watch many films.

B Pattern: He knows the town very well. He often shows strangers about it. –

If he didn't know the town so well, he wouldn’t show strangers about it.

1. Betty is fond of reading. She has so many books at home. 2. He lives near the university. It takes him ten minutes to get there. 3. The weather is nasty. We’ll stay indoors. 4. He earns a lot of money. He travels a lot. 5. Dan has a dog. He knows much about dogs. 6. Bell has got a lot of free time. She watches TV three hours a day. 7. Chris lives far from his office. He gets up very early. 8. He is a very interesting person. I always enjoy talking to him. 9. This book is very useful. I want to buy it. 10. I like this film. I’ll buy the cassette. 11. I think that the play will be interesting. I’ll go to the theatre. 12. The plant is going to close down. Many people will be out of work. 13. The road is repaired. It will take us less time to get home. 14. We are moving into a new flat. We won’t have to spend so much time on going to work.

Exercise 3. Match these parts to make conditional sentences.

1. They would be disappointed… 2. Many people would be out of work… 3. I would be surprised… 4. What would happen… 5. I would be terribly upset… 6. She would understand everything… 7. I would take the job… 8. He wouldn’t get much money for his car… 9. What would you buy… 10. You’d feel better… 11. I wouldn't argue… 12. Would you buy this flat… 13. He would be really angry… 14. I would be grateful… 15. I would listen to the elders’ advice… 16. What would you say… a. if I was offered it. b. if I lost his ring. c. if he sold it. d. if I took his car without asking. e. if we didn't come to their party. f. if this factory closed down. g. if you overslept tomorrow? h. if he refused to lend you some money. i. if you helped me with this problem. j. if I were you. k. if you explained the situation to her. l. if you won a lot of money? m. if I weren't absolutely sure I was right. n. if you were offered this job? o. if you stopped smoking. p. if you had enough money?

Exercise 4. Open the brackets.

A 1. If I (have) enough money, I (buy) this overcoat. 2. Larry (write) them if he (have) enough time. 3. If you (travel) first class, it (cost) over $750. 4. If you (ask) Esther, she (help) you. 5. If I (stop off) in Boston, I (stay) with my friends. 6. If you (see) her now, you (not recognise) her. 7. What you (do) if you (ask) to help us? 8. If I (go) to the doctor, he (give) me a certificate? 9. If I (be) you, I (choose) a different topic. 10. What you (do) if you (be) in his place?

B 1. How long it (take) you to get to the university if you (move) into this flat? 2. They (not be pleased) if we (come) without asking. 3. I (not be surprised) if the money (find) at his place. 4. If he (ask) about this case, he (not tell) anything. He is too frightened. 5. What (happen) if there (be) a serious nuclear accident? 6. If there (be) a flood in this area, you (not get) a penny in compensation. 7. If we (not waste) so much energy, our resources (last) longer. 8. I (not be) in this job unless I (be) a Ph.D.! 9. Unless we (think) new research was necessary, we (not spend) money on it. 10. Just imagine what the world (be) like if we (not have) electricity!

C 1. There (not be) so many articles on astrology unless so many people (be) interested in it. 2. If my car (be struck) in a traffic jam, I (be) very angry. 3. I never (hit) anybody unless they (hit) me. 4. If you (watch) TV, you (choose) a western or a comedy? 5. You (not get) this job unless you (have) some qualifications. 6. I (not let) you marry my daughter unless you (start) earning money. 7. You (make) a scene if you (provoke)? 8. I (refuse) to go unless the company (pay) my expenses. 9. Who you (ask) if you (not know) what to do? 10. I (buy) this car if I (be) richer. 11. I don't agree with his economic policy. I (not vote) for him unless he (change) it. 12. If I (be) you, I (see) a doctor about those headaches. 13. If you (have) an argument with your friend, you (apologise) first? 14. What you (do) if one day a millionaire (ask) you to marry him/her?

Exercise 5.What would you do if you were...? Practise using verb forms in contrary-to-fact sentences with if.

Pattern:— What would you do if you were a house painter? — If I were a house painter, I would (paint houses, paint your house, etc.)

1. a bird 2. a mountain climber 3. an artist 4. at/in (a particular place) 5. a good cook 6. ninety years old. 7. a police officer 8. a parent 9. ambitious 10. a magician 11. at home 12. (name of a famous person) 13. a professional athlete 14. a billionaire 15. the leader of your country

Exercise 6. Complete the following sentences.

A 1. If the weather was bad… 2. If somebody stole my bag/purse… 3. If I were offered a good job… 4. If I had a birthday party… 5. If I were working in London… 6. If I were a publisher… 7. If I were a film-star… 8. If I had a pet… 9. If it were summer now… 10. If I had more free time… 11. If he were younger…

B1. I’d talk more politely to them if… 2. I’d go to the theatre if… 3. They would know English better if… 4. He would travel more if… 5. She would talk on the phone less if… 6. Chris would write letters to his parents if… 7. Alice would study better if… 8. I’d lend him money if… 9. I’d borrow money from him if… 10. He’d be offered a good job if…

Exercise 7. Translate the following sentences into English.

1. Если бы у меня был хороший словарь, я бы тратил меньше времени на переводы. 2. Мне нравятся эти часы. Если бы они были, дешевле я бы купил их. 3. Я уверен, что вы бы делали меньше ошибок, если бы знали грамматику лучше. 4. Если бы решение этого вопроса зависело от меня, я бы помог вам. 5. Если бы Денни выехал завтра пораньше, то он был бы в Нью-Йорке уже к вечеру. 6. На вашем месте я бы не спорил. 7. Я бы не согласился на это предложение, если бы я был на месте Ларри. 8. Если бы он не тратил так много денег, ему не пришлось бы брать в долг. 9. Он не приезжал бы в этот город каждое лето, если бы ему здесь не нравилось. 10. Мне бы больше нравился здешний климат, если бы дождь не шел так часто. 11. На вашем месте я бы выбрал другую работу. 12. Что бы вы делали, если бы вы были на моем месте? 13. Если бы вы попросили их помочь, они бы не отказали вам.


Exercise 1. Translate the following sentences into Russian.

1. If he had put on a warm coat yesterday, he would not have caught cold. 2. If I had seen him yesterday, I’d have given him a piece of my mind. 3. If he had realised the danger, he would have run away. 4. Tony wouldn’t have been so depressed if he had known everything. 5. If George had gone to the party last night he would have seen Bell there. 6. Unless you had studied film history, you’d never have passed that exam. 7. We wouldn’t have chosen this tour unless it had been escorted. 8. Would you have gone to Rio if you had known it was going to be so hot there? 9. Matthew wouldn't have left the children alone for too long if it hadn't been so necessary to see the doctor. 10. How much would you have spent on your holiday tour if you had gone first class instead of second? 11. If the mother hadn't left the scissors on the floor, the kid wouldn’t have cut his finger.

Exercise 2. Match these parts to make conditional sentences.

1. I’d have gone to see you… 2. The accident wouldn’t have happened… 3. They would’ve come to our party… 4. She would have bought that necklace 5. We wouldn't have watched that programme… 6. Tom would have been late for his interview… 7. He wouldn’t have become a teacher… 8. No one would’ve bothered you… 9. I’d have sent you a postcard while I was on holiday… 10. He would have never asked you to give him a lift… 11. She would’ve been injured in crash… 12. I would have phoned him yesterday… 13. I wouldn’t have fallen off… 14. The man would’ve been arrested long ago… 15. You wouldn’t have left your tickets… 16. What would you have done… a. if I had known your address. b. if she had had enough money on her. c. if I had known that he was expecting my call. d. if I had known you were ill. e. if you had witnessed the crime? f. if she hadn't been wearing the seat-belt. g. if you had checked everything before the departure. h. if the driver in front hadn’t stopped so suddenly. i. if I had missed the train. j. if he had left some clues, but he hadn't! k. if we had known it would be so boring! l. if he had understood how hard it was going to be! m. if you had told us you wanted to sleep. n. if we hadn’t forgotten to invite them. o. if he hadn't been in such a hurry. p. if someone had been holding that ladder!

Exercise 3. Change the following sentences according to the pattern.

Pattern: If it didn't rain, we’d go for a walk. (yesterday) – If it hadn’t rained yesterday, we’d have gone for a walk.

1. They would come if you invited them. (yesterday night) 2. If you weren’t so careless, you wouldn't make such a foolish mistake. (then) 3. If they were present, we would discuss it with them. (last Monday) 4. If it were sunny we’d go to the beach. (the day before yesterday) 5. If she were ready, she would take her exam. (last week) 6. If Gerry weren't so busy, I’d ask him to help me. (in the morning) 7. If you had a spare ticket, I’d see the performance. (yesterday) 8. If I knew English better, I’d work as an interpreter. (then) 9. If Phil practised more, he’d play the guitar better. 10. If I had time, I’d go shopping with you. (yesterday) 11. He would fill in that form if he didn't forget about it. (at the airport)

Exercise 4. Complete the following sentences.

1. If the students had practised harder… 2. If the form had been filled in correctly… 3. If someone had told us about the change earlier… 4. If they hadn't left their money at home… 5. If he hadn’t lent Jim his money… 6. If he hadn't got up so late… 7. If his wife hadn't bought a new coat… 8. If the film hadn't been so interesting… 9. If the problem hadn't been so urgent… 10. If I hadn’t passed my exam… 11. If she hadn't reminded me about his birthday…

Exercise 5. The Chain Story Game. Continue the story according to the pattern.

Pattern: If I hadn’t gone to a party last night, I wouldn't have gone to bed late. If I hadn't gone to bed late I wouldn't have forgotten to set the alarm. If I hadn’t forgotten to set the alarm, I wouldn’t have got up late…etc.

You may use the following beginnings:

§ If I had gone to London last year…

§ If he hadn’t forgotten about the interview the day before yesterday…

§ If we hadn't missed the train…

or make up your own one.

Exercise 6. Translate into English.

1. Если бы вы взяли такси вы бы приехали на вокзал вовремя. 2. Если бы ваше предложение было получено на прошлой неделе, мы бы приняли его. 3. Этого бы не случилось, если бы вы были там. 4. Если бы вы пришли пораньше вы бы еще застали моих родителей. 5. Если бы они не отказались помочь, мы бы уже вчера закончили работу. 6. Если бы вы читали книгу, то вы бы лучше поняли фильм. 7. Если бы задание не было таким сложным, студенты выполнили бы его гораздо быстрее. 8. Если бы я взял с собой кинокамеру, то снял бы хороший фильм во время путешествия. 9. Если бы я был в городе, когда твой брат приезжал, я бы повидался с ним. 10. Алан не принял бы это предложение, если бы не нуждался в деньгах. (to be short of money) 11. Лорейн не вышла бы замуж за него, если бы не была уверена в том, что это будет хороший брак. 12. Я бы не начала читать эту книгу, если бы мне ее не порекомендовали. 13. Дэвид никогда бы не поступил в университет, если бы не занимался историей в школе. 14. Никто не заподозрил бы его в краже, если бы он уничтожил отпечатки пальцев. (fingerprints)

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