Расскажите о развитии технологии пищевых производств.




1. trade guild – зд. ремесло

2. to cure – мариновать, засаливать

3. fowl – домашняя птица

4. batch – цикл, циклический

The food industry has its roots in the remote past. Almost every subdivision of the food industry and particularly those dealing with grain and bread, meat and meat products, fish and fish products, spices and preserved foods, was a well-defined trade guild1. From the experience of generations, food technology developed just as other sciences developed. Milling and baking were well developed in ancient times. There were both private and public ovens of baking bread. From the point of view of preservation of foods, some practices are immemorial. Thus, freezing or icing of meat was used in all parts of the world where ice was obtainable and where cold weather prevailed at some time during the year. Curing2 meat by the addition of salt is another ancient method. The drying and salting of fish as performed by the Egyptians are shown in their sculptures and there are Egyptian paintings illustrating the catching, keeping, feeding, killing, salting, cooking, and eating of fowl3. The Romans also preserved fish with salt. Cheese was manufactured thousands of years ago. Butter is also an ancient food.

It is clear, however, that in all these instances the product was prepared or preserved not on a large commercial scale. The production of food, as an industry, actually has a history extending as far as the history of modern chemistry because it was considered a part of chemical technology. Thus, Chemical Technology published in 1870 contained the following sections: starch, sugar manufacture, cane sugar, beet sugar, fermentation, wine making, beer brewing, spirits, bread baking, manufacture of vinegar, and essential oils.

Food technology developed in full with the growth of the processing industries and with improvement in food machines, transportation, refrigeration, storage and packaging. The canning of foods was made practical about 1809. The tin can was first introduced about 1810 but it was not until about 1870-1875 that canning really developed as an industry.

At the start of even modern food processing, most operations were batch4 processes, but with the development of adequate food machines and instruments for automatic control, many manufacturing steps were first made partially continuous and finally fully automatic and continuous.

Письменно переведите текст С4 на русский язык.


The major causes of food deterioration include the following: (1) growth and activities of microorganisms, principally bacteria, yeasts, and molds; (2) activities of the natural food enzymes, (3) insects, parasites, and rodents; (4) temperature, both heat and cold; (5) moisture and dryness; (6) air, and more particularly oxygen; (7) light; and (8) time.

These factors are not isolated in nature. Bacteria, insects, and light, for example, can all be operating simultaneously to deteriorate food in the field or in a warehouse. Similarly, such factors as heat, moisture, and air will all affect the multiplication and activities of bacteria, as well as the chemical activities of the natural food enzymes.

At any time, many forms of deterioration may take place, depending upon the food and environmental conditions. Total food preservation must eliminate or minimize all of these factors in a given food. Thus, for example, in the case of canned meats we sterilize the canned product to kill microorganisms and to destroy natural meat enzymes. We put the meat in a metal can which protects it from insects and rodents, as well as from light which could deteriorate its color and possibly its nutritive value. The can also protects the meat from drying out. Vacuum is applied, or the can is flushed with nitrogen to remove oxygen. The cans are stored in a cool room and the length of time the cans are held in supermarkets and in our homes is limited. In this case the preservative method takes into account all of the major factors in food deterioration. It is well to consider these factors individually.


Грамматика: обзорные упражнения по теме «Неличные формы глагола»


Active Vocabulary

1. market – рынок, торговля, сбыт, спрос; рыночная цена

to market – реализовывать (на рынке), сбывать, продавать, торговать

marketing – торговля, продажа, маркетинг; предмет торговли

2. to retain – удерживать, сохранять, поддерживать

retention – удерживание, сохранение

3. to beat off – отбивать, отражать, отгонять

4. to negotiate [ni'gƆu∫ieit] – вести переговоры, договариваться, устраивать, улаживать, продавать

5. to secure – охранять, гарантировать, обеспечивать, закреплять, доставать

6. to deliver – доставлять, вручать, снабжать, поставлять, производить

7. to wake up to – осознавать

8. estimate (n, v) – оценка, смета, калькуляция; оценивать, подсчитывать, составлять смету

9. loss – убыток, потеря

10. profit (n, v) – прибыль, польза; получать прибыль; извлекать пользу

profitability – прибыльность, доходность, рентабельность

11. revenue – годовой доход,

(pl.) доходные статьи

12. to advertise – рекламировать, давать объявление, извещать

advertisment (сокращ. «ad») – реклама, анонс, объявление

13. referral – направление, справка

14. to compete – состязаться, соревноваться, конкурировать

competitor – соперник, конкурент, участник состязания

competition – конкуренция, соперничество, состязание, конкурс, борьба

15. commitment – обязательство, передача, поручение

16. word–of–mouth – устный, передаваемый в устной форме

17. to defect – изменить, перебежать, переметнуться, перейти на сторону противника

18. customer loyalty – верность (преданность, привязанность) покупателя


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