Lecture. Theme: National Economy and Chief Industries of the UK.
2. Industrial Revolution
3. The years of self-confidence
4. Changes in the life of people
The aim of the lecture:To get acquainted with National Economy and Chief Industries of the UK.
Newcastle ['nju:kа:sl] – Ньюкасл
Cardiff ['kа:dif] -Кардифф
Bristol [bristl] -Бристоль
Birmingham ['bә:miŋәm] - Бирмингем
Coventry ['k ɔvәntri] - Ковентри
Sheffield ['∫efi:ld] -Шеффилд
Belfast ['bеlfa:st] - Белфаст
peasant – крестьянин
spinner – прядильщик
weaver – ткач
enterprise – предприятие
remnants – остаток
limestone - известняковый
The content of the lecture: ECONOMY
Wool and Cloth making Industry.Many landowners found that they could make more money from breeding sheep than from growing crops. They could sell the wool for a good price to the rapidly growing cloth making industry. They needed more land for the sheep to graze, so they fenced off land that had always belonged to the whole villageThis process of fencing off common land is known as enclosures. Enclosures were often carried out against the law, but because magistrates were themselves land- lords, few peasants could not prevent it. As a result, many poor people lost the land which they had farmed, as well as the common land where they kept animals.
The production of cloth, the most important of England's products, reached its greatest importance during the 16th century. Clothmakers bought raw wool and gave it to spinners. The spinners were mostly women and children, who worked in their poor cottages for very little payment. After the spinners the wool was passed to weavers. When the cloth was ready, it was sold.
Coal and Steel.In the 16th century people learned to burn coal in stoves instead of wood. Coal gave greater heat when burning. By using coal instead of wood fires, people were able to produce greatly improved steel. Improved steel was used to make knives and forks, clocks, watches, nails and pins. Birmingham, by using coal fires to make steel, grew in the 16th century from a village into an important industrial city.
THE YEARS OF REVOLUTION
Industrial Revolution. By the early 18th century simple machines had already been invented. With the help of the machines, large quantities of simple goods could be made quickly and cheaply.
By the middle of the 18th century industry began to use coal for changing iron ore into good quality iron or steel. This made Britain the leading iron producer in Europe. Increased iron production made it possible to manufacture new machinery for other industries. One invention led to another, and increased production in one area led to increased production in others. In the middle of the century other countries were buying British uniforms, equipment and weapons for their armies. To meet this increased demand, better methods of Production were found, and new machinery was invented which replaced handwork. In 1764 a spinning machine was invented which
|could do the work of several hand spinners The weaving machine invented in 1785. It allowed Britain to make cheap cloth, and Lancashire cloths were sold in every continent. Factories supplied with machinery did not need so many workers as before, and that created a serious problem: a lot of workers became unemployed.|
Workers tried to join together to protect themselves against powerful employers. Riots occurred, led by the unemployed who had been replaced at the factories by machines. In 1799 some of these rioters, known as Luddites,began breaking up the machinery which had put them out of work. The situation in the country was very tense. People were afraid of a revolution like the one in France.