Religious life in a Christian family
Shortly after birth a child is christened or baptized in the presence of its godfather or godmother and is thus received into the Christian Church. Religious upbringing and religious instruction or education (R.E. as a subject at school) are the responsibility of the Church, the parents and, in some countries, the schools. A baptized child should be taught how to lead a good Christian life, become acquainted with the Old and New Testaments of the Bible and learn the Lord's Prayer and the Creed. At about the age of 13, a Protestant child can be confirmed, thereby becoming a full member of the Church and thus entitled to receive Holy Communion. Catholic children receive their First Communion at the age of nine.
Pious churchgoers attend church services on Sundays to worship God. They listen to the sermon given by the clergyman preaching from the pulpit, pray to the Maker/Creator, sing hymns and donate money to the charity organizations run by the Church. Devout Catholics also go to confession regularly to tell the priest their sins in the confessional. A Christian's spiritual leader may be a Catholic priest, an Anglican vicar or rector, or, in the case of Presbyterian and some other Nonconformist Churches, a minister or pastor.
Contemporary trends in Christian Churches__
1. A general decline in church attendance and membership has become evident.
2. There is now a widening gap between extremely liberal tendencies among clerics and church members at one end of the scale and very conservative tendencies at the other end.
3. There has been a spread of fundamentalism in the US and a growth in the popularity of the US televangelists. These preachers manipulate television in order to express their puritanical views and to attack various aspects of the permissive society such as greater sexual freedom, women's liberation etc. Their fundamentalist belief in the literal truth of the Bible has even led them to oppose the teaching of Darwin's theory of evolution.
4. The fear of failing to attract the young is one of the main concerns of Churches today.
5. More and more people have come to regard religion as a private and personal matter concerning only the individual and God, which explains the growing reluctance to worship in churches.
The danger of sects
Fundamentalist sects are by no means a new phenomenon, but in the last few decades some radical sects - often characterized by occult and sinister practices and rituals - have emerged, especially in the US. Dissatisfied with the mainstream religions, which frequently seem unable to provide answers to their moral and ethical questions, many young people are attracted to such radical sects. With the help of mind-control techniques similar to brainwashing, the leaders of the sects have little difficulty in exploiting the feelings and emotional needs of young people, in destroying their self-respect and individuality and in making them mentally and emotionally dependent.
Christian [´krɪstʃǝn] християнин
Catholicism [kǝ´θɒlɪsɪz(ǝ)ɪm] католицтво
Protestantism [´prɒtɪstǝntɪz(ǝ)m] протестантство
adherent [ǝd´hɪ(ǝ)rǝnt] прихильник;
heathen [´hi:∂(ǝ)n] язичник, язичниця
Christianity [ˏkrɪstɪ´ænɪtɪ] християнство
to convert [´kɒnvɜ:t] звернений в іншу віру
missionary [´mɪʃǝn(ǝ)rɪ] місіонер, проповідник
faith [feɪθ] віра
congregation [ˏkɒŋɡrɪ´ɡeɪʃ(ǝ)n] паства, релігійне
to discriminate against [dɪs´krɪmɪneɪt] ущемляти інтереси
persuasion [pǝ´sweɪʒ(ǝ)n] переконання
unbeliever [ˏʌnbɪ´li:vǝ] невіруючий
atheist [´eɪθɪɪ:st] атеїст, боговідступник
agnostic [æɡ´nɒstɪk] агностик
Anglican Church [´æŋɡlɪkǝn tʃɜ:tʃ] англіканська церква
established Church [ɪ´stæblɪʃt ´tʃɜ:tʃ] державна церква (in G B)
to separate [´sep(ǝ)rɪt] відділяти, роз’єднувати
Roman (Catholic) Church [ˏrǝυmǝn´kæθǝ
lɪk´tʃɜ:tʃ] католицька церква
supremacy [sǝ´premǝsɪ] перевага
the Pope [pǝυp] папа римський
to dissolve [dɪ´zɒlv] розформовувати
monastery [´mɒnǝstrɪ] монастир (чол.)
monarch [´mɒnǝk] монарх
archbishop [ˏɑ:tʃ´bɪʃǝp] архієпископ, владика
Canterbury [´kæntǝb(ǝ)rɪ] м. Кентербері
comparable [´kʌmp(ǝ)rǝb(ǝ)l] достойний порівняння
denomination [dɪˏnɒmɪ´neɪʃ(ǝ)n] гідність, вартість
Presbyterianism [ˏprezbɪ´tɪ(ǝ)rɪǝnɪz(ǝ)m] пресвітеріанство
Methodist [´meθǝdɪst] член методистської
Baptist [´bæptɪst] баптист
Nonconformist [ˏnɒnkǝn´fͻ:mɪst] нонконформіст
sectarian [sek´te(ǝ)rɪǝn] сектант
strife [straɪf] боротьба, разбрат
ecumenical [ˏi:kjυ´menɪk(ǝ)l] вселенський
pluralism [´plυ(ǝ)rǝlɪz(ǝ)m] плюралізм
Evangelical [ˏi:væn´dʒelɪk(ǝ)l] протестант, евангеліст
Scripture [´skrɪptʃǝ] Біблія
Gospel [´ɡɒsp(ǝ)l] Новий заповіт
Ritual [´rɪtʃυǝl] ритуал; церемонія
revival meeting [rɪ´vaɪv(ǝ)l] [´mi:tɪŋ] релігійне обєднання
evangelist [ɪ´vændʒɪlɪst] евангеліст
convert [´kɒnvɜ:t] звернений в іншу віру
persecution [ˏpɜ:sɪ´kju:ʃ(ǝ)n] переслідування
Jew [dʒu:] еврей; іудей
haven [´heɪv(ǝ)n] притулок
rabbi [´ræbaɪ] рабі; раві; равин
to christen [´krɪs(ǝ)n] хрещений
to baptize [bæp´taɪz] наректи, охрестити
godfather/godmother [´ɡɒdˏfɑ:∂ǝ] /
[´ɡɒdˏmʌ∂ǝ] хрещена мати/батько
the Lord's Prayer [preǝ] "Отче наш" (Pater Noster)
the Creed [kri:d] кредо, віросповідання
to confirm [kǝn´fɜ:m] підтверджувати,
Holy Communion [´hǝυlɪ] [kǝ´mju:nɪǝn] піднесення Святих
pious [´paɪǝs] набожний,
to attend [ǝ´tend] відвідувати
service [´sɜ:vɪs] служба (церковна)
to worship [´wɜ:ʃɪp] відправлення реліг.
sermon [´sɜ:mǝn] проповідь, повчання
clergyman [´klɜ:dʒɪmǝn] священник, пастор
to preach [pri:tʃ] проповідувати
pulpit [´pυlpɪt] кафедра (проповідника)
to pray [preɪ] молитися
the Maker/Creator [´meɪkǝ] творець
hymn [hɪmn] церковний гімн;
to donate [dǝ(υ)´neɪt] пожертвувати
charity [´tʃærɪtɪ] благодійність
devout [dɪ´vaυt] відданий
to go to confession [kǝn´feʃ(ǝ)n] іти на сповідь
priest [pri:st] священник
sin [sɪn] гріх
confessional [kǝn´feʃ(ǝ)nǝl] конфесійний,
vicar/rector [´vɪkǝ] [´rektǝ] вікарій, намісник
minister/pastor [´mɪnɪstǝ] [´pɑ:stǝ] служитель, місіонер
attendance [ǝ´tendǝns] присутність,
gap [ɡæp] різке розходження (в
cleric [´klerɪk] духовна особа
preacher [´pri:tʃǝ] проповідник
to manipulate [mǝ´nɪpjυleɪt] маніпулювати
puritanical [ˏpjυ(ǝ)rɪ´tænɪk(ǝ)l] пуританський
permissive [pǝ´mɪsɪv] такий, що дозволяє
literal [´lɪt(ǝ)rǝl] літеральна константа
concern [kǝn´sɜ:n] домовленість, згода
sect [sekt] секта
phenomenon [fɪ´nɒmɪnǝn] явище
occult [´ɒkʌlt] окультизм
sinister [´sɪnɪstǝ] поганий
to emerge [ɪ´mɜ:dʒ] з’являтися
mainstream [´meɪnstri:m] основний напрямок
mind control [maɪnd] [kɒn´trǝυl] контроль свідомості
technique [tek´ni:k] техніка (методика)
brainwashing [´breɪnˏwɒʃɪŋ] ідеологічна обробка
to exploit [´eksplͻɪt] маніпулювати
self-respect [selfrɪ´spekt] почуття власної
Mass Media: The Press
Britain is a nation of avid newspaper readers. More than 16 million people buy a copy of a morning paper and countless Britons spend part of every Sunday with the latest issue of their favourite Sunday paper. As there is keen competition between the mass-circulation dailies and weeklies, reporters are constantly in search of scoops to raise their circulation figures.
Britain's newspaper market is very differentiated. In addition to the national Sunday papers (The Sunday Times, Sunday Telegraph, News of the World, etc.) there are five national 'quality' dailies and seven national 'popular' dailies (the latter are also called tabloids). The quality newspapers, which are serious in content and approach and large in size, appeal chiefly to the educated classes, whereas the smaller tabloids with their many photos and striking headlines cater mainly for the less intellectual 'man or woman in the street'. Besides all these national papers there are many local dailies as well as weekly and monthly magazines and journals.
|The quality papers||average circulation||political viewpoint|
|The Daily Telegraph||1,021,000||conservative|
|The Guardian||412,000||liberal/left of centre|
|The Independent||364,000||middle of the road|
|The Times||343,000||right of centre|
|The Financial Times||290,000||middle of the road|
(average circulation figures for 1993)
Some of the down-market tabloids are The Sun, The Daily Mirror, The Daily Mail, The Daily Express etc., all of which have millions of readers.
To remain competitive, tabloids often entice readers with shocking and sensational stories, lurid details of scandals and crimes, pin-ups etc., which explains why they are sometimes called the 'gutter press' or 'yellow press'. Serious papers try to maintain a balance between the freedom of the press and the public's 'right to know' on the one hand and the journalistic code of ethics and the individual's right to privacy on the other.
In the USA there is no newspaper that, strictly speaking, can be defined as a national paper. Only The New York Times, The Washington Post, USA Today and The Wall Street Journal are of nation-wide importance. However, there are numerous local and regional papers as well as a wide variety of periodicals and news magazines (Time, Newsweek) etc.
In both Britain and the USA the press has undergone radical changes over the last few decades. As more and more small papers were bought up by powerful publishers, huge newspaper chains emerged: a trend towards concentration typical not only of the press but of the mass media in general. Another trend which has had a great impact on newspapers is that of syndication. Syndicated columns, cartoons etc. by prominent journalists and cartoonists are published by many different US newspapers. Thanks to such news-reporting services as Reuters and AP (Associated Press) the collection of information and coverage of foreign news have become more efficient. More recently, new technology has replaced the traditional typesetters and printing presses.
Apart from some minor differences serious newspapers basically offer the same things: journalists cover events of national and international importance on the front page or back page, columnists write fashion, motoring or financial columns, there are special features on topics like education and gardening, sports reporters inform the readers on the sports pages, cartoonists amuse them with comic strips and cartoons and critics write reviews of the latest plays, books etc.
Additional features are leading articles (leaders) written by the editor, correspondence columns with 'letters to the editor', the latest installment of a serialized novel, notices of births, deaths and marriages, crossword puzzles horoscopes and 'situations vacant' and 'situations wanted' advertisements. Considerable space is devoted to ads of various kinds, including classified ads, as newspapers could not survive without advertising revenues.
The publishing house has its papers printed and then taken to the newsagents. Subscribers' papers are delivered to their homes, as their subscription includes this service.
avid [´ævɪd] жадібний
copy [´kɒpɪ] копія
issue [´ɪʃu:] випуск, видання
mass circulation [mæs] масове
daily [´deɪlɪ] щоденне видання
weekly [´wj:klɪ] щотижнева газета
scoop [sku:p] важлива, найсвіжіша
circulation figures [ˏsɜ:kjυ´leɪʃ(ǝ)n] дані про тираж
quality (paper) [´kwɒlɪtɪɪ] [´peɪpǝ] солідна газета
popular (paper) [´pɒpjυlǝ] масова газета
tabloid [´tæblͻɪd] малоформатна газета
approach [ǝ´prǝυtʃ] підхід
headline [´hedlain] газетний заголовок
magazine [ˏmæɡǝzi:n] журнал (периодичний)
journal [´dʒɜ::n(ǝ)l] газета; журнал
liberal [´lɪb(ǝ)rǝl] ліберал
middle of the road [mɪdl] [rǝυd] серединний
competitive [kǝm´petɪtɪv] конкуруючий
to entice [ɪn´taɪs] заманювати
sensational [sen´seɪʃ(ǝ)nǝl] сенсаційний
lurid [´l(j)υ(ǝ)rɪd] сенсаційний;
pin-up [´pɪnʌp] фото красуні; кінозірки
gutter press [ˏɡʌtǝ´pres] бульварна преса
yellow press [´jelǝυ] [pres] жовта преса; бульварна
freedom of the press [´fri:dǝm] [pres] свобода друку
right to know [raɪt] [nǝυ] право бути в курсі
code of ethics [kǝυd] [´eθɪks] кодекс етики
privacy [´pr(a)ɪvǝsɪ] особистий простір
periodical [ˏpɪ(ǝ)rɪ´ɒdɪk(ǝ)l] періодичне видання
news magazine [nju:z] [ˏmæɡǝ´zi:n] сусп.-політ. журнал
publisher [´pʌblɪʃǝ] видавець; власник
syndication [ˏsɪndɪ´keɪʃ(ǝǝ)n] колонка; рубрика
column [´kɒlǝm] синдикат
cartoon [kɑ:´tu:n] карикатура (перев.
cartoonist [kɑ:´tu:nɪst] карикатурист
coverage [´kʌv(ǝ)rɪdʒ] репортаж
typesetter [´taɪpˏsetǝ] друкарська машина
printing press [´prɪntɪŋpres] друкована преса
to cover [´kʌvǝ] покривати
columnist [´kɒlǝm(n)ɪst] колумніст
feature [´fi:tʃǝ] характеристика
critic [´krɪtɪk] критик; критикан
review [rɪ´vju:] огляд
leading article (leader) [ˏli:dɪŋ´ɑ:tɪk(ǝ)l] передова стаття
editor (in chief) [´edɪtǝ] [tʃi:f] головний редактор
letter to the editor [´letǝ] [´edɪtǝ] лист до редакції
instalment [ɪn´stͻ:lmǝnt] опублікувати з
crossword puzzle [´krɒs(ˏ)wɜ:d]
[´pʌz(ǝ)l] кросворд; сканворд
'situations vacant' [ˏsɪtʃυ´eɪʃ(ǝ)n]
[´veɪkǝnt] пропозиція роботи
'situations wanted' [ˏsɪtʃυ´eɪʃ(ǝ)n] заяви про надання
classified ad [ˏklæsɪfaɪd´æd] тематична об’ява
advertising revenues [´revɪnju:] доходи від реклами
publishing house [´pʌblɪʃɪŋ] [haυs] видавництво
newsagent [´nju:zˏeɪdʒ(ǝ)nt] газетний кіоскер
subscriber [sǝb´skraɪbǝ] абонент
subscription [sǝb´skrɪpʃ(ǝ)n] підписка (на газету)
Mass Media: Radio and TV
If you want to listen to the radio, you switch on your radio set and tune in to a broadcasting station. You need an aerial (BE)/antenna (AE), a receiver, an amplifier and loudspeakers to receive good stereo quality on VHF (AE: FM). You can listen to the news and the weather forecast, to pop(ular) songs or classical music, to radio plays or to live broadcasts of sporting events, depending on what your favourite programmes are.
The BBC, which used to have a complete monopoly of radio and television broadcasting, has always been financed by annual payments/ licence fees. Though under government control, the BBC has full autonomy in choosing the content of its programmes and in running its own affairs.
ITV consists of 15 regional television companies. The programmes it broadcasts are financed by commercial advertising.
There are also many private and independent local radio stations, which are financed by companies paying to have commercials, i.e. advertisments for their products, broadcast on the radio. Sometimes advertisers even sponsor their own programmes, e.g. a quiz show or a serial.
In addition to the thousands of local radio stations in the USA, there are three major national networks – CBS, NBC and ABC – which dominate the radio services. Being the largest commercial TV companies in the country, these three networks are also responsible for the majority of TV programmes broadcast nationwide. Unlike the commercial networks, the Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) is largely financed through donations.
Cable TV and satellite TV
Cable TV, which was first introduced in the US, began to make its appearance in many European countries in the 1970s and 1980s. The deregulation of broadcasting in some countries led to the introduction of many private networks and satellites were launched, beaming station programmes into cable networks.
At first cable TV developed relatively slowly in most countries. There was one major problem: the cost of digging the roads up and of installing cables in people's homes. But the network is growing.
Direct transmission by satellite has largely been introduced, which means that there are dozens of new (satellite) channels in addition to the ones already existing. Many countries in Europe have set up their own satellite broadcasting and all over the world private companies and government organizations plan to put more satellites into orbit.