Ex. 2 Answer in complete sentences
1. What are the surface conditions of Mars? 2. What did photos taken by Mariners reveal? 3. In what way do crater rims of Mars differ from those on the lunar surf ace? 4. What is the evidence of seasonal temperature variation on Mars? 5. What makes us believe that the polar caps are fairly deep? 6. What is the composition of the polar caps? 7. What do some seasonal changes in colouration suggest? 8. Why is the Martian surface exposed to cosmic and solar radiation and proton bombardment?
Ex. 3 Paraphrase the following.
1. Mars has surface conditions closely resembling those on the earth. 2. The Martian atmosphere consists of a thin envelope of carbon dioxide near the surface 3. Landforms typical to terrestrial deserts are totally absent on the Martian surf ace in spite of the aridity of the surface environment. 4. The absence of a distinct magnetic field and the rarified atmosphere tend to expose the Martian surface to dangerous cosmic and solar radiation.
Ex.4 Guess the meanings of the italicized words
1 a) No chlorophyll has been detected on Mars. b) Material transport on the Martian surface is slightly greater than on the moon. c) The absence of a distinct magnetic field and the rarified atmosphere tend to expose the Martian surface to dangerous cosmic and solar radiation and proton bombardment.
2 a) In spite of some change in colouration on the surface of Mars no chlorophyll has been detected. b) As a result of excessive amount of sand, roads become impassable. c) Some of the lunar crates have unmistakable features of volcanoes.
3 a) There is a thin film of carbon dioxide near the Martian surface. b) Predators are animals that live by killing and eating other animals..
Text The moon
The Moon is the first nonterrestrial body to be visited by man. Long before the first Moon visit in 1969, astronomers and other scientists knew much concerning the Moon. Detailed photographs permitted it to be mapped with great precision (accuracy).
The Moon presents an exceedingly hostile environment to man. There is no atmosphere, no water, no life, no movement. Temperatures range from well over 150°F in full sunlight to "space cold" – near absolute zero – in the deepness of the lunar night. Level areas are rare, and the entire surface is pockmarked (covered) with circular craters ranging from tiny pits (holes) a few inches across to gigantic craters 50 to 70 miles in diameter and with rugged rims 6,000 feet high.
Most of these circular craters are believed to have been caused by the impact of meteors that must have had a wide range of sizes. Some of the larger craters, however, have unmistakable features of volcanoes, including distinct lava flows. Some of the high ridges do not seem to be related to volcanic or meteoric causes, but the general surface contains no pronounced separation into high continental blocks and low basins, as on earth.
The surface of the Moon is covered with loose, unconsolidated and unassorted debris of rock material that has solidified from a molten state. In spite of the great age of the lunar surface rock material (about 3 billion years), there is no trace of chemical alteration indicating that the great sterile environment of the lunar surface has not changed noticeably since the rocks were formed.
Among some of the puzzling (strange) features of the lunar surface are deep, sinuous chasms (widening canyons) and long, straight fissures that radiate from some of the larger plains. Analyses of rock samples (specimens) brought back to earth by the Apollo astronauts indicate:
1) a consistent great age of the surface material;
2) a common igneous origin (solidification from a molten state);
3) no new elements;
4) common chemical elements to those in rocks of the earth;
5) some metallic elements such as titanium that are more abundant than inthe surface rocks of the Earth.
Ex. 1 Give brief answers.
1. When was the Moon first visited by man? 2. Did scientists know anything about the Moon before that? 3. Is there any atmosphere or water on the Moon? 4. What are the daily temperature variations on the Moon? 5. Is the relief of the Moon smooth? 6. What are the main relief features of the Moon? 7. Are the Moon craters big or small? 8. What material is the surface of the Moon covered with? 9. Is there any evidence of chemical alteration, or weathering? 10. What does it indicate? 11. Is the surface material of the Moon old or young? 12. What is the origin of the surface material? 13. Were any new chemical elements found on the Moon? 14. Are the chemical elements of the Moon similar to those on the earth crust?
Ex. 2 Answer in complete sentences.
1. When was the Moon mapped with great accuracy? 2. What is the Moon's environment? 3. What is the temperature range on the Moon? 4. What is the relief of the Moon? 5. What is the origin of the moon craters? 6. What is the general surface of the Moon compared with that of the Earth? 7. What is the surface material of the Moon composed of? 8. What are some of the puzzling features on the lunar surface? 9. What does analyses of rock samples indicate?